Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of the people at large. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the Reformation is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy , and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. The term also more specifically refers to a historical intellectual movement, The Enlightenment. This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of aesthetics , ethics , and logic.
The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as a courageous elite, and regarded their purpose as one of leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition , full of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny, which they believed began during a historical period they called the Dark Ages.
This movement also provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions , the Latin American independence movement, and the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth Constitution of May 3 , and also led to the rise of liberalism and the birth of socialism and communism. The expression "early modern" is sometimes used as a substitute for the term Renaissance , and vice versa. However, "Renaissance" is properly used in relation to a diverse series of cultural developments; which occurred over several hundred years in many different parts of Europe —especially central and northern Italy —and span the transition from late Medieval civilization and the opening of the early modern period.
The term early modern is most often applied to Europe, and its overseas empire. However, it has also been employed in the history of the Ottoman Empire. In the historiography of Japan , the Edo period from to is also sometimes referred to as the early modern period. The 17th century saw very little peace in Europe — major wars were fought in 95 years every year except , to , and to Europe in the late 17th century, to , was an age of great intellectual, scientific, artistic and cultural achievement.
Historian Frederick Nussbaum says it was:. The worst came during the Thirty Years' War , , which had an extremely negative impact on the civilian population of Germany and surrounding areas, with massive loss of life and disruption of the economy and society.
Methods of Evaluation and Weights:
Some historians believe that the era of the Reformation came to a close when Roman Catholic France allied itself with Protestant states against the Habsburg dynasty. For the first time since the days of Martin Luther, political and national convictions again outweighed religious convictions in Europe. The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political power. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei.
European sovereigns, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.
Early Modern Europe
Scholars taking a "realist" perspective on wars and diplomacy have emphasized the Peace of Westphalia as a dividing line. It ended the Thirty Years War , where religion and ideology had been powerful motivating forces for warfare. Westphalia, in the realist view, ushered in a new international system of sovereign states of roughly equal strength, dedicated not to ideology or religion but to enhance status, and territorial gains.
The Catholic Church, for example, no longer devoted its energies to the very difficult task of reclaiming dioceses lost to Protestantism, but to build large-scale missions in overseas colonial possessions that could convert the natives by the thousands Using devoted members of society such as the Jesuits. Diplomacy before was not well developed, and chances to avoid wars were too often squandered.
In England, for example, King Charles II paid little attention to diplomacy, which proved disastrous. During the Dutch war of , England had no diplomats stationed in Denmark or Sweden. When King Charles realized he needed them as allies, he sent special missions that were uninformed about local political, military, and diplomatic situations, and were ignorant of personalities and political factionalism. Ignorance produced a series of blunders that ruined their efforts to find allies. Diplomacy became a career that proved highly attractive to rich senior aristocrats who enjoyed very high society at royal courts, especially because they carried the status of the most powerful nation in Europe.
Increasingly, other nations copied the French model; French became the language of diplomacy, replacing Latin. Important peacemaking conferences at Utrecht , Vienna , Aix-la-Chapelle and Paris had a cheerful, cynical, game-like atmosphere in which professional diplomats cashed in victories like casino chips in exchange for territory. He landed on a continent uncharted by Europeans and seen as a new world , the Americas.
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To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile the crown under which Columbus made the voyage , the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands. The structure of the Spanish Empire was established under the Spanish Habsburgs — and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
Under Philip, Spain, rather than the Habsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world, easily eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease. The Battle of Pavia marked the beginning of Spanish dominance in Italy.
Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the 15th century, but had been marred by rival claims until the midth century. While Venice, the Papal States, Este, and Savoy retained their independence, the rest of the Italian Peninsula either became part of the Spanish Empire or looked to it for protection. There would be no Italian revolts against Spanish rule until The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but also in the world.
Much of the medieval political centralization of France had been lost in the Hundred Years' War , and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars or Wars of Religion. This was the time when Europeans went out to meet the world, with all the consequences that have reverberated down to the present day.
In historiographic terms early-modern Europe offers unique opportunities to scholars. It was a time when burgeoning governments, churches, and institutions produced for the first time an immense paper trail of life — published thought, legal documents, bureaucratic records — all aided by the new printing industry and operating on a scale never seen before in human society.
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This intersection of ancient traditions and behaviors with advanced forms of data collecting and record keeping has made early-modern Europe especially appreciated by historical anthropologists and ethnographers, who explore it to understand a time when magic was the equal of medicine; when honor still held sway on the battlefield; and when the world was an immensity waiting to be explored, conquered, comprehended and converted.
At OSU, the study and teaching of early-modern Europe is the full-time interest of five senior professors. Available Formats: Hardcover eBook. Available Formats: Hardcover Softcover eBook. Publishing With Us.
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Early Modern European Society by Henry Kamen
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